appellation is a regional appellation that can be applied to all the wines coming from areas for viticulture (except forest areas close to the Atlantic Ocean and alluvial soils called "palus") in the Gironde region.
The aeras of production are either exclusively devoted to the AOC Bordeaux, or shared with other specific appellations. The limit of each parcels has been studied within each communal territory, to define each parcels according to its nature, soil, environment, to get a product of quality.
The AOC Bordeaux Superieur is a complement to the other appellations that are on the Bordeaux vineyard, either it desappear in front of higher appellation, or it replaces the AOC Bordeaux when the criterias of quality, stricter than the previous one, are met, especially with a mandatory aging of min. 9 months before marketing.
The AOC Bordeaux Sec regards also all wine areas of the Gironde region, but relates only to white wines. To get the appellation, the wines need to be perfectly dry, with a residual sugar under 4 gr/L.
The diversity of Bordeaux wines depends on the diversity of the terroirs but also on the viticultural and winemaking methods used in the each estate. These wines are mostly made of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, the first one bringing the tannic structure, the other one the fruit and the velvety texture. The Cabernet Franc is sometime added in the blend. It brings roundness and spicy aromas. The Petit Verdot and Malbec can also appear. Nearly 60% of Bordeaux wines are estate vinified. White wines from the AOC Bordeaux and Bordeaux Sec mix the fruityness of the Sauvignon Blanc and the roundness of the Sémillon thanks to a well-balanced blend.
The Bordeaux, Bordeaux Supérieur and Bordeaux Sec appellations haven't stopped, for about thirty years, to improve their global quality, especially by eliminating poor quality soils, limiting the yields and fixing more restrictive criterias for the obtention of the AOC.
More informations on the website of the wines of Bordeaux